Samuel Johnson quote: He who makes a beast of himself, gets out of the pain of being a man.
  2021 Rx

Station to Station

Planets cross the sky from west to east, in a prograde motion. Sometimes, one will slow down and begin moving west to east, a retrograde motion – to revisit aspects and sanction pos­si­bilities. In the schemes of this and this, Ceres ended up playing host to Mer­cury for three weeks during one of his 2021 retro­grades. And that was when the mother to Per­seph­one learned from the complex one that Jupiter and Saturn will have a long overdue hug in Aquarius. Mars will not retrograde and Neptune spends half the year in water. Uranus is still ankle deep in bullshit, and there’s a ranging discussion on Diana and what to do w/ the moons and moonmoons.

  Uranus Rx   The graeco-roman sky god airs inner con­vic­tions and uses his outside voice doing so (tau aug-dec). Uranus is sib­lings w/ love, hell, and moth­er Earth. Uranus is also spher­i­cal, blue-green, attacked by solar winds be­cause the avatar to the zodiacal wheel is flat on his back, wrapped in iced waters stained w/ dark organics all the while exhaling stu­pen­dous fumes.

  Saturn Rx   Awareness of prox­im­ity to the god of duty stepping back­wards can put a stop to all mind games (aqu jun-oct). Wall­flowers can bloom for a season. Thugs and enigmas can expect a come­uppance. Early sky watchers saw an unusual planet sur­round­ed by a sickle, so named it after Saturn, ur­surp­er of heaven 1.0. The king of the titans is never warm­er than minus 240 degrees, and his many moons and rings continually send down organic building blocks in frozen packaging.

  Vesta Rx   Leaving 2020 fast as her feet could run, Vesta stops just nineteen days into 2021, and will spend 90 days unspooling a bit of 2020 back to per­form a proper kin­dling rite and re-settle ‘first flame’, her sacred charge, in safer surroundings (vir jan-apr). The resultant glow re­veals the venerable roman fire god­dess to be bean-shaped and wearing a smooth basalt cloak studded w/ achon­drites spears tipped w/ mete­o­rites: diog­e­nite, eucrite and howar­dite.

  Pluto Rx   The roman infernal god is silently ferrying the dead back to the other side (cap may-sep). Pluto was deemed a primary planets when he was discovered. Now the ‘unseeen’ is better known as the shadow harbinger of a vast celestial court of pantheons paying heed to the Sun.

  Ceres Rx   The daughter to Jupiter chooses her words carefully because she is cognizant of sharp implements (gem oct-dec). Ceres is the premier asteroid deity, stepping into view at the Ob­ser­va­tory of Palermo on the first day of 1801. The aggrieved roman goddess of agri­cul­ture was spherical, wearing a pock­marked swim­suit, studded w/ salted pearls and slathered w/ organic building blocks, and doing laps in an ocean world of sea water.

  Neptune Rx   Altered states are best practised alone as a veil descends on everything (pis jul-nov). The roman marine god gets to crest virgin waves, under unflattering light, knowing when geniality is at stake then indulgence + social outings tend touchy feely spirit­ual­ized really. The liquid liege had chos­en the date of his resurfacing into history by sending a dream, in 1846, to a sleeping ma­the­ma­ti­cian. The woke mor­tal re­turned to the New Berlin Ob­ser­va­tory, entered new coordinates, and found Neptune sit­ting on his trident throne.

  Juno Rx   Confidences can come undone, and events play out at cross-purposes (sag apr-jul). Nursed by the four seasons, Juno grew up prone to distractions. Es­pecially now that the roman sky god­dess found out that her greek-half lives just 64 aster­oids away.

  Jupiter Rx   Social obligations can come w/ a steady drip of dystopia (aqu jul-oct). Babylonian sky watchers paid close attention to the planet Jupiter and its annual return, and used this 12-year span of the reigning roman sky god as a 7th-c. BC structure to describe the zodiac of heaven, pin the constellations, begin a map of a hypothetical heaven.

  Chiron Rx   This hybrid-spawn to Saturn and an oceanid-mare (long story) knows to wear sensible shoes (ari jul-dec). Already on a chaotic orbit, prone to head in­jur­ies, Chiron is the first of his kind: a collective of aster­oids w/ comet tails.

  Pallas Rx   The graeco-roman goddess of wisdom shapeshifts – be­coming even harder to emulate – yet presents spartan (pis jul-nov). After­wards, Pallas turns her grey eyes back on the two fishes whose waters she is currently swim­ming in. One headstrong the other lost, in ‘an ocean of energies in which two vast com­ple­men­tary ties can be dis­tin­guished’.

  Venus Rx   The heart risks sabotage when attraction to the unattractive be­comes fashionable (cap mid-dec). Beast and the beauty: es­crow walk and pil­low talks.

  Mercury Rx   The roman messenger god flies fleet as thought over a year warped by avarice and thrice met by pushback. A friend­ship can be lost (aqu feb). Ego won’t stand down (gem jun). Tempests in teacups can cause a bout of chitchat opinions (lib oct).

  Diana Rx   Some semi-public pedestal toppling might occur (cap may-jul). In 1863 Diana dashed into reality, darkly carbonaceous and primitive, as befits the roman goddess of the hunt.

  Eris Rx   Innocence can suffer, and some growing up might happen; when haste finds balance w/ waste (ari jan-dec). While the 21st-c. was young the greek priestess to Khaos stepped out of the Kuiper belt, fully formed. The goddess of discord is sheathed in white-white methane ice shedding miasmas.

  Hygiea Rx   Secrets can die and Hygiea might be leaking toxin(leo jan-mar). The greek medicine goddess had emerged in 1849, spherical and intact.

  Pholus Rx   Any bodily injury in­curred while retro­grade (cap apr-aug) can take a longer time to mend. Accid­entally poisoned by Medusa’s blood, the greek centaur of Mt Pholoë expired and came back as a 110-mile wide asteroid w/ a comet tail.





Francisco Mattos

  LEFT COAST ART




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cheese wedge

When a nearly intact tomb belonging to egyptian royalty was discovered in 1922, for­eign cor­re­spon­dent John L. Bal­der­ston was there cov­er­ing it for the New York World. The world then be­came some­what familiar w/ the ancients’ belief in im­mor­tality as well as the science of embalming, an operation tak­ing 70 days to achieve and presided over by Anubis. Bal­der­ston was later hired to pro­duce the screen­play for a fan­tas­ia based on a fiction, fash­ioned from a back­story by Nina Wilco Put­nam, on the life of 18th-c. french hyp­no­tist Cali­os­tro. The result dipped romance into ungodly goo that only Holly­wood could con­coct.
  1.   The Mummy (1932)    As the 1921 field expedition season opens in Egypt, members of the British Museum discover a coffin and a body inside. “The gods of Egypt still live in these hills, in their ruined tem­ples.” Boris Karloff is the mum­my Im­ho­tep, awakened by tomb-hunters and pur­su­ing the rein­car­na­tion of his princess Anck-es-en-Amon – in flap­per-era London.   2.   The Mummy’s Hand (1940)    Following a map, ar­chae­ol­o­gists find the tomb of the princess Anan­ka, and by break­ing the seal of the seven jackals unleash a ter­ror that has waited 3,000 years to be reborn. “We search for the tomb of a prin­cess, and all we find is the mummy of a man.” Tom Tyler is the mummy Kharis – im­part­ing to the role his famous lurch and one dead arm. Eduardo Cianelli plays the high priest.   3.   The Mummy’s Tomb (1942)    Opening his eyes for the first time as the mum­my Kharis, Lon Chaney Jr will seek vengeance for the tomb des­e­cra­tion of his prin­cess Ananka. “The curse on that tomb ex­tends to the blood relations of all who en­tered it.” Turhan Bey is Mehemet Bey.   4.   The Mummy’s Ghost (1944)    Ramsay Ames is the american reincarnation of the princess Ananka, and Lon Chaney Jr again plays the mummy Kharis, crossing the Atlantic Ocean to court her. “First it’s the Mum­my. Now it’s a re­in­car­nat­ed woman!” John Car­ra­dine plays Yousef Bey, and George Zucco is An­do­heb.   5.   The Mummy’s Curse (1944)    Lon Chan­ey Jr is revived a third time as the mum­my Kharis, and finds reason to wade into the Lou­i­si­ana bayou where a crypt holds dead prin­cess Anan­ka, his beloved Virginia Chris­tine. “I can nev­er get too much sun.” Peter Coe is Dr Ilzor Zandaabm, and Dennis Moore is Dr Halsey.


 







-¦  January 2021  ¦-




 WHAT SHE SAID

Mae West quote: His mother should have thrown him away and kept the stork.  




 STAIRWAY TO HEAVEN



a n a l y s t      On April 15, 1726, while taking tea in the garden w/ his friend, Issac Newton b.1642 pondered on an apple which had just fallen to the ground. William Stuckeley records how Newton mused:
      “Why should that apple al­ways descend per­pen­dic­u­lar­ly to the ground? Why should it not go side­ways, or up­wards? but con­stant­ly to the earth”s centre? As­sured­ly, the reason is, that the earth draws it. There must be a draw­ing power in ­, and the sum of the draw­ing power in the mat­ter of the earth must be in the earth’s centre, not in any side of the earth. There­fore does this apple fall per­pen­dic­u­lar­ly, or toward the center. If matter thus draws ­, it must be in pro­por­tion of its quan­tity. There­fore the apple draws the earth, as well as the earth draws the apple.”

a e r i a l i s t      The ancients, even if concerned of this “drawing power” that Newton was to articulate, mocked the gravity throne by continuing to send prayers up to heaven. Entreaties in temple script on paper were folded into a lantern, a candle is attached so that heat and smoke from the flame collects inside the lantern -- caus­ing its ascent to gods and god­dess­es.       Man­kind eventually followed that lantern, yet the ear­li­est airmen didn’t know to carry oxygen, and re­turned spouting the wildest tales of beings living in the upper air, and among them were four broth­ers, who were curious and would ap­proached w/ whistles and roars and yells, about many subjects, including that con­found­ed new contrivance, a wind tunnel.
      Sensing fear in the visitors’ eyes, their thun­der abated. Then Zephros drew even closer and whis­pered: “We are wind gods of the four cardinal points, heralds of seasons, sons to Typhöeus, fifth and final monster born to mother Earth. We too seek a rea­son for exis­tence, and wheth­er or not it be­comes us to be suited up in turbines, pumps, and such.”       Notos spread icicles when parting his lips: “Can these regulation systems really help w/ my rest­less­ness? and what’s up w/ welded insulation?” Euros brought up the sorest point: “Can gravity weigh me down and curb my mood.” Boreas’ grum­ble rumbled: “Magnetosphere con­strains our empire but why? and who are these rocket­men and their aerial ad­ven­tures in guidance and control?”

a v a t a r      Then the wind gods would in­var­i­a­bly take their guests on a grand tour. Earth’s at­mo­sphere is spherical and con­tains a precise mix­ture of gases such that oxygen be­comes its mir­ac­u­lous chem­i­cal product. The at­mo­sphere has the same shape as Gaia due to her gra­­vi­ta­tion­al grit, which she bestows to water and all things living. And just as the sea and moun­tains are deemed sentient so too should Aether be con­sid­ered a be­ing, having under­gone “bio­chemical modifications by living organisms” ever since his aboriginal form co­a­lesced into a paleo-atmo­sphere. Material enough for mother Earth to lassoo the invisible entity w/ a girdle tight enough to separate him into distinct layers and is the main cause of clouds.       Ancients can discern this sky god only when he digs into his bag of op­ti­cal tricks and throws mir­ages or scatters light. Aether is des­ign­at­ed the patron deity to life on Gaia, whose exis­tence depends on a narrow band of the bottom layer, be­gin­ning at sea level.

a n g e l      Im­ag­i­na­tive proto-aviators studied birds, how they populate the air and go where they will. Wings got built, men got strapped, jumps hap­pened -- all to naught or worse. Leo­nar­do da Vinci b.1452 had sketched out such dreams of levi­ta­tion but his idea, wings that can flap, never left the sketchbook.

   Bird wings are folding fans, able to expand and collapse. Each wing is a web of arm bones, having joints which, by evolutionary decree, have quills on the knuck­les; each quill grasps one feather.

a i r m a n      The wind gods liked to play w/ man­kind’s kites and were completely en­tranced by paper prayers heaven-bound using only heated air. They then found out that hydrogen, discovered c.1780, has levitational abilities also -- but only in unadulterated form; other­wise, being a gas, it would simply dissipate. Rare and difficult to distill, hydro­gen requires a cham­ber, white-hot iron, running water; and had to wait until a non-porous material to contain the new gas had not yet been de­vel­oped. In the interim, heated air would have to make do for heady inventors.       A ginor­mous pillow, w/ a small open­ing and tied to a large basket, was deemed capa­cious enough that, by tak­ing in a healthy gulp of hot air, the entire con­trap­tion will rise into the air (1783). Then, as the trapped air cools, the hot-air balloon will descend. The first volun­teers chosen to carry out this maid­en flight were a french sheep, duck and rooster.

a c r o b a t      Kites were originally devised to bring the way wind into better play. Kites (and smoke) could and were used for military reasons: as a signal, a measurment of dis­tance, to “test the wind”. Dog-earred generals carried mint editions of The Myth of Icarus into battle and tasked military engineers to make accessories to kites so that, adding a pas­sen­ger, the gimmick can be carried upwards.       Starting in the late 1850s, the idea of a man in the air, tethered to a kite, got serious attention. Could it be that sending up an en­tire lab was so 1847 al­ready? That was when the first use of a kite to forecast the weather occurred at Kew Ob­ser­va­to­ry, when a “very stable” one was able to support “meteorological instruments at height”. Benjamin Franklin b.1706 had got there first w/ a simpler laboratory: kite, key, lightning storm.
      Then the golden age of kiting came to an end around 1910, when the military began to pay visits to the sky, giving notice that the empire of the winds was coming to an end.


a l c h e m i s t      Gunpowder is the earliest known chemical explosive. Adding heat to a mixture of carbon, sulfur and saltpeter (an ef­flor­es­cence mineral found on stones) will cause a flash accompanied by fire that burns off. China’s alchemists had learned how to extract saltpeter, during a medicinal quest to find the elixir of life -- what they got instead “smoke and flames”.
      Although the ear­li­est pyrotechnics in the sky were to send signals they were also used, in pro­fu­sion, on any occasion for pomp that needed a pop.       Paper tubes filled w/ confetti and a spoon of gun­powder were then sealed w/ a fuse stick­ing out. The tube is secured to a long stick that acts as a tail, is aimed to­wards the sky -- fire is in­tro­duced to the fuse gets ig­nit­ed. The deto­nation pro­duces a pro­pul­sive force, the fire­work ascends and the con­tents spill out.
      In­ge­nui­ty on how the fire­smith fills the tube is what will ha­ppen next.       Fire­works are pro­pelled mis­siles guid­ed dur­ing a brief ini­tial phase of pow­ered flight. Each fire­work has a sub­sequent tra­jec­tory that obeys the laws of grav­ity, codified as clas­sic­al mechanics.

a r c h e t y p e       When the Second World War ended in 1947, pilots from many nations re­turned to the civilian ranks.       Some, how­ever, to­geth­er w/ their ground me­chan­ics and radio op­er­a­tors, were eager to go further into the sky, and by the late 1950s heaven was beginning to get crowded.
      Gov­ern­ments were wont to fund space ex­plo­ra­tions, but only after the re­main­der of Earth not yet bound by pass­ports -- the north and south poles -- were divvied up. Long­i­tude and latitude deter­mi­na­tions then led to pre­ci­sion map­ping of the world, and in the co-mingling of new disciplines, rock­et science took off to map all the others.


Nile from outer space

South African National Space Agency

Formed in 2010 to manage sat­el­lites that monitor the con­ti­nent for flooding and fires, pro­vide an earth watch record, play host to the only regional space weather warn­ing center for Africa, and the inheritor to a re­cord­ing sta­tion, the Her­ma­nus Magnetic Ob­ser­va­to­ry, set up to be a geo­mag­net­ic research center and part of a net­work taking meas­ure­ments of the global mag­net­ic field.        Now the station is a part of the site that ad­min­is­ters South Afri­ca’s space pro­gram.



European Space Agency

A com­pact for western Europe after inter­gov­ern­men­tal dis­cus­sions for a cohesive ap­proach to space. Designed for uncrewed mis­sions in 1975, ESA soon enough changed its approach to space science. Today, ESA does so much more than ex­plor­a­tion. There is de­vel­op­ment going on for a space­plane and a project to turn earth-watch data into apps. A sur­vey of one per­cent of the known universe (2019), which will result in a map. What hap­pens when regular and dark mat­ter meet, and how both act, together and sep­ar­ate­ly, when mingled w/ dark energy (2019). A study the Sun up close. Search for life on Mars. Planned mis­sion to Mercury (2025). Several exo-planetary hunt­ing missions. Orig­ins of phos­phor­us. Then a deep dive into an asteroid defense shield. The agency’s major space­port is in French Guiana, where it con­ducts human space­flight, launches Earth observation sat­el­lites, and sends space­probes to explore. Found­ed by ten nations, the European Space Agency now has 22 mem­bers, and a wait­ing list of ± eleven applicants.


国 家 航 天 局

China launched into outer space in 1970 w/ a song. The satellite con­tained a perpetual loop of Dong Fang Hong, a sung eulogy to Mao Zedong, bringing the rev­ol­u­tion to the subhurbs of the solar system.        Formed in 1993 from input by four bodies: sys­tems en­gin­eer­ing, space sci­ence, gen­er­al plan­ning, for­eign af­fairs. China’s space pro­gram was made possible be­cause of Hsue-Shen Tsien b.1911, ex­pelled from JPL for political un­cer­tain­ties. Aero­space scientists in Chengdu have shown interest in launching an artificial moon as a fixed sat­el­lite no more than 50 miles wide and 22,000 mi (35,400 km) away. When the re­port­er asked, the de­vel­op­ers of this secondary source of il­lu­mi­na­tion at night promised a “dusk-like glow” that won’t dis­turb nocturnal animal rites. Today, the CHINA NATION­AL SPACE AGENCY has landed on the moon twice -- the first since the Apollo missions. Recently named an as­ter­oid it discovered for Wu Wei­ren (2020), a pioneer of deep space ex­plor­a­tion. Yes­ter­day, China thanked its stars that an out-of-control space­craft, spinning and tumbling going on two years, fi­nal­ly crashed into the south Pacific (2018).
Moon

Mercury
Ελληνικός Διαστημικός Οργανισμός

Experiencing a malleable mo­ment w/ yearnings for a return to Olympus, Greece put away the telescope and announced the cre­a­tion of a       HEL­LEN­IC SPACE CENTER in 2019, in­vit­ing divine mes­seng­ers Her­mes and Iris to issue a di­rec­tive that greek culture plans to again be a par­tic­i­pant in “space events”.




Bộ Khoa học và Công nghệ

Vietnam’s interest in space, if any, falls under the pur­view of the ministry of science and tech­nol­o­gy, which has thrown a bu­col­ic blanket over its astro-plans.       Back in 1980, the coun­try was proud to have had a viet­naut join a cosmo­naut to pilot Soyuz 37 onto the Sal­yut-6 space station, the first of three such pair­ing of viet- and cosmo- nauts, under a pro­gram from the soviet union for social­ist coun­tries allied to the war­saw pact. Phạm Tuân, born in Quoc Tuan village (1947), flew a jet fight­er in the people’s air force (1965) and died age 32 in a Mig-21 crash.

International Space Station

The era of comfort in space took place silently when the first com­po­nent to a future space sta­tion com­plex was launched (1988), carrying container con­nec­tions for con­tin­gen­cy transfer of water, con­tain­er bags, wipes, “filters”. The space module also carried six nickel-cad­ium bat­ter­ies, two solar arrays, three docking ports. A pres­sur­ized valve unit w/ air ducts, funnel con­tain­ment fil­ters and dust col­lect­ors. Smoke de­tec­tor, gas anal­yz­er, gas masks, port­a­ble fans. The cabin has a pole, hand­rails, hooks, in­stru­ment con­tain­ers. Zarya was the first component to ISS, de­signed to be au­ton­o­mous for eight months. More modules then ar­rived to inter­lock and create an ex­po­nen­tial habitat. Fifteen na­tions and five space age­ncies co­or­di­nate this mis­sion -- Can­a­da, Japan, Rus­sia, United States, the Euro­pean Space Agen­cy -- sign­ing agree­ments cov­er­ing legal, fi­nan­cial and po­lit­i­cal im­pli­ca­tions in how the station is util­ized; day to day; traffic; crew time. Ser­viced by a team of three robots capable of in­de­pen­dent or con­joined ac­tiv­i­ties. Legacy loos are being re­placed w/ new com­fort stations (2020); a waste man­age­ment sys­tem common for all vehi­cle plat­forms is on the draw­ing table.
ISS flies in front of the Sun.


Indian Space Research Organisation

A moon mission, led by female scientists in 2017, detected “mag­mat­ic water” -- first evidence of h-two-oh. Chandrayaan-1 then had a mishap and crashed, adding a new crater. A second moon mis­sion, having re­leased a land­er which was within a mile from touch­down, sud­den­ly be­came dis­abled from a cyber­attack and ceased func­tion­ing (2019). Re­port­ing to the depart­ment of space, the space pro­gram also develops and deliv­ers sat­el­lite apps for smart phones, includ­ing in car­tog­ra­phy and dedi­cated distance edu­ca­tion.       India’s space program (1969) had humble beginnings, when iono­sphere sound­ings were being con­duct­ed in Cal­cut­ta (1920s). Today’s sky watch­ers prefer to do so in a theater, watching the latest bolly-fi release.


Zambian Space Programme

Edward Nkoloso was an african grade school teacher tink­er­ing with a catapult capable of send­ing a spaceship car­ry­ing ten or so to Mars.       When Zambia gained in­de­pen­dence in 1964, he was then ap­point­ed liai­son w/ re­gion­al free­dom fight­ers; all the while ­ his space pro­gram going. There is foot­age of his training camp for afro­nauts from 1960. Born a prince of the Bemba tribe, Ed­ward Ma­ku­ka Nko­loso had a mis­sion­ary edu­ca­tion in latin, french and the­ol­o­gy; he died in 1989, age 70.
Canadian Space Agency

Continuing to maintain its air fleet after World War Two, Canada paid attention to the upper atmosphere and in 1962 launched a satellite.       Formed in 1990, the Canadian Space Agency now shares its space knowledge for the “ben­e­fit of can­ad­i­ans and humanity”, and has chal­lenged its youth to submit ideas for “mak­ing space easier and more fun”, w/ the promise to prototype the best entry. There is a trove of footage from a canadian astro­naut training camp.

Royal Canadian Air Force WW-2

Hubble Space Telescope 1990

NASA

As the outcome to World War II turned in their favor, the United States set in motion “oper­a­tion paperclip” to re­trieve nazi rocket tech­nol­o­gy, and came back w/ 100 V-2 rockets, production site draw­ings, and Wernher von Braun b.1912, amenable to con­tin­ue where he had left off. Home­grown rocket science was al­ready hap­pen­ing at the Jet Pro­pul­sion Lab­or­a­to­ry, so Amer­i­ca made plans for a future in space and in 1958 created the NATION­AL AERO­NAU­TICS AND SPACE AD­MIN­IS­TRA­TION.       Seven years later there was an orbiting lab. Then a duo-man program left foot­prints on the Moon (1969). The first un­teth­er­ed spacewalk was in 1984, when astronaut Bruce McCand­less performed free flying 320 feet away from his craft: “... overused lines ‘slipped the sur­ly bonds of Earth’, but when I was free from the shut­tle, they felt ac­cur­ate”. From its in­cep­tion, NASA hired tal­ent, and some of these stor­ies are dramatized in 2017’s Hidden Figures, about three african american female mathe­ma­ti­cians.
Soon attention will be paid to samples brought back from apol­lo asteroid Ben­nu by the Orig­ins Spec­tral In­ter­pre­ta­tion Re­source Iden­ti­fi­ca­tion Secur­ity Rego­lith Explor­er (2020). These days NASA has plans for an inter­stel­lar mission to the Alpha Cen­tau­ri system (2017). Elated about the scholarship named for Dr Kath­er­ine Coleman Goble John­son (2018). Perturbed that “poor rec­ord keeping” con­trib­ut­ed to the loss of an Apollo 11 lunar col­lec­tion bag that con­tained lunar dust par­ti­cles (2018). Released a 60-year an­ni­ver­sary video (2018). Es­tab­lished as a civilian space program, Amer­i­ca’s space pro­gram was militarized sixty years later.

Cape Canaveral 1965 Lunar Mobile 1972
Technicians at Goodyear Aircraft Corp work on an inflatable space habitat concept for NASA
Mary Jackson. Judy Sullivan. Betty Skelton. Eleanor Burbidge. Dr Mae C Jemison. Laurel van der Wal. Grace Hopper. Dorothy Vaughan. Judith Love Cohen. Katherine Johnson.

Venus

UK Space Agency

Britain caught the space flu ear­li­er than most, and by 1933 al­ready had an inter­planet­ary society. Post World War Two, re­covered ger­man rocket sci­ence under­went forensics and soon enough test launches were conducted, in 1957 reach­ing an altitude of 125 mi (200 km). Eventually a national space agency was set up in 2010, ab­sorb­ing an ear­lier iteration from 1985.       UKSA offers an apprenticeship pro­gram, is not­ed for sus­tain­a­ble de­vel­op­ment, and now fo­cused on space debris -- an emerg­ing real­ity. A folder on UFOs, “com­prising en­tire­ly of cor­re­spon­dence w/ mem­bers of the public” going back 50 years, is to be re­leased through the royal air force website.



New Zealand Space Agency

   When it became ap­par­ent their location was be­com­ing an ideal spot for space launches, New Zea­land donned min­is­ter­ial gloves in 2016 to fetch back a suitable space scarf to add to the coun­try’s wardrobe.

宇 宙 航 空 研 究 開 発 機 構

On a hunch, three research labs decided to merge, bringing to­geth­er experience in radio as­tron­omy, the magnetosphere, and x-ray (1955) (1964) (1969). The team went on to found the JAPAN AERO­SPACE EX­PLOR­A­TORY AGENCY in 2003. Where­as it used to send sat­el­lites to watch the earth and report on the trop­i­cal rainfall sea­sons and at­mo­spher­ic dy­nam­ics (1997), JAXA now con­ducts innovative research -- based on their encounter w/ Ryugu in 2019. As Haya­busa-1 was approaching the half-mile wide asteroid the space­craft took a pot­shot (creating a new crater) be­fore its lander board­ed this fly­ing rock. Then it flung samples back to Earth. Pro­ject­ed to hit the ocean off Australia, the envelope, con­tain­ing sam­ples be­twen 10 million and 20 million years old, was re­trieved in the outback (2020).        Japan’s dream of space came from Hideo Ito­ka­wa, who test-launched a small missile in 1955. Grad­u­ate of the imperial uni­ver­sity w/ a major in aero­nautics (1935), Ito­ka­wa was a vis­ion­ary and is grand­pa to Japan’s space program.
Ryugu 2019

Asteroid belt objects Vesta Eros Ida Juno Mathilde Dactyl Ceres


Centre National d'Études Spatiales

When France went over the rub­ble of World War 2, any bal­lis­tic missile, ex­ploded or not, were gingerly handled. Vic­tor­ious though shell-shocked, the nation had once set records for hot-air balloon feats when the 18th-cen­tury was still young, now she sat about to tinker w/ these wea­pons in order to glean aero­dynam­ic achieve­ments from the german school of “rock­et pro­pul­sion and guid­ance”.         Enough inter­est that the NATION­AL CEN­TRE FOR SPACE RE­SEARCH was created in 1961, and gave space medicine a face when astronaut Jean-Loup Chrétien was mon­i­tored med­i­cal­ly in 1982. Then military wings sprouted in 2019, when NCSR joined the air force, and is planning to re­lease a trove of UFO files go­ing back to 1954. With a heady mis­sion to trans­pose civ­il­i­za­tion to space, France’s space pro­gram is the largest budg­et­ary contributor to the European Space Agency.

Agentur für Luft-und Raumfahrt

In 1961, a manuscript by Con­rad Haas b.1509 ap­peared, waxing poetic of his ex­per­i­ments in cross­ing wea­pon­ry w/ fireworks, what China knew as a “fire lance” he called his “flying jave­lin”. Lab work in ion­o­spher­ic phys­ics, wave pro­pa­ga­tion (U of Graz) and plas­ma physics (U of Inns­bruck) would have in­trigued Haas, an austrian mil­i­tary en­gin­eer from Tran­syl­va­nia.       Seeking a foun­da­tion­al start­ing point, the acad­e­my of sci­ences con­vened, in 1972, the AUS­TRI­AN SPACE AGENCY.



Державне космічне агентство України

By the time H.F. Proskura b.1876 began to specialize in helicopters (1914), a Ukraine space program was already in situ. He was a hy­draul­ic en­gin­eer who built sys­tems for regulating hydro­dynam­ism, and together w/ like-minds launched a missile to the strat­o­sphere in 1937. This feat prompt­ed the re­tooling of an auto­mobile plant into manufac­tur­ing rockets (c.1960s).       Today’s NA­TION­AL SPACE AGEN­CY OF UKRAINE (1992) is child to the soviet space program.
Uranus + moons Ariel Titania Oberon Miranda Umbriel

Neptune + moons Nereid Galatea Proteus Triton


Agenzia Spaziale Italiana

19th-century Italy looked at the sky w/ scientific eyes, keeping up a study begun 300 years or more ago. Luigi Gussali b.1885 would go on to propose solar power as a propellant in 1946. Nuclear pow­er would work, Gioulio Go­stan­zi b.1875 had said earlier, in 1914 -- pos­tu­lat­ing on the plights of weight­less­ness, heat death as well as poisonous rays from the Sun.       Today their re­search are a part of the ITAL­IAN SPACE AGENCY, which opened next door to the Vat­i­can in 1988, now studies “habit­able space in­fra­struc­ture” and all things gamma-ray related.




Magyar Űrkutatási Iroda

The ministry of national de­vel­op­ment oversees a civil­ian space pro­gram , w/ aero­space re­search­ers and advisory board (1992).        Then money for the nation’s science sector dried up and has jeo­par­dized the HUN­GAR­IAN SPACE OFFICE.



Роскосмос

The Russian space program has claim to many fathers, some al­ready delving into reactive pro­pul­sion tests when the 20th-cen­tu­ry was yet a babe. Kon­stan­tin Tsiol­kov­sky b.1857 the­or­iz­ed about aeronautics and rocketry in 1929. Fried­rich Zander b.1887 finetuned liquid-fuel research for practical ap­pli­ca­tions. Then a space acad­e­my blos­somed before being folded in­to a clas­si­fied mil­i­tary pro­gram in 1992 -- and ROSCOS­MOS its public face.       Left behind are icon­ic mo­ments from the soviet space program. First wo­man in space Valen­tina Teresh­kova (1963); the cosmo­naut who pre­ced­ed her Yuri Gagarin (1961). Stand­ing on their shoul­ders Alexei Leonov, who made the first space­walk (last­ing 12 min­utes and nine seconds): “I stepped into that void and I didn‘t fall in. I was mes­mer­ised by the stars. They were every­where – up above, down below, to the left, to the right” (1965). The best looking satellite is still the first, Sputnik-1 (1957), a globe w/ four an­ten­nae.
Sputnik-1 1957

Rocket City 1956



Agenţia Spaţialǎ Românǎ

Early 20th-century Romania had enough enthusiasts build­ing and test­ing aero­planes that the na­tion developed five air­craft com­pa­nies into a national in­dus­try.       Com­bin­ing in 1990 to be­come the ROMAN­IAN SPACE AGEN­CY, and tasked w/ space research activ­i­ties and “secur­ity ap­pli­ca­tions”. Member of ESA since 2012.




Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.

By 1907 Germany had al­ready set up an ex­per­i­men­tal aero­dy­nam­ic station (1907). Soon eough at­tract­ing in­ter­est from an in­sti­tute, as­so­ci­a­tion, con­sor­tium and a society.         In­ter­est in space never waned, and in 1989 this pro­duc­tive R&D all came to­gether to form the GER­MAN AERO­SPACE CEN­TER, w/ a cur­rent em­pha­sis on hy­dro­gen as an energy carrier, and research into traffic con­ges­tions.



 WHAT HE SAID


Spielberg's Lincoln has a dream: It's nighttime. Ship's moved by some terrible power at a terrible speed. And though it's imperceptible in the darkness I have an intuition that we're headed towards a shore. No one else seems to be about the vessel. I'm very keenly aware of my aloneness. I could be bounded in a nutshell and count myself a king of infinite space, were it not that I have bad dreams.  




 METAL MEN Wild Wild West

Illustrated w/ collages, drawings, maps, paintings, photographs, prints and quotes

| |  Out west, when 1848 was only twenty-four days old, mechanic James Marshall was making a routine inspection on the grounds of a sawmill he ran for his employer. That was when the New Jersey native noticed some odd-looking ore in a water channel of the South Fork of the American River. It was “... bright, yet malleable. I then tried it between two rocks, and found that it could be beaten into a different shape, but not broken.”  | |  Nine days after Marshall emerged from the waters w/ his find, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, transferring a large tract of Mexico to the United States.  | |  These concurrent events together precipitated the California Gold Rush of 1849, when folks came from all over, bringing dreams while praying to the god and goddess of wealth for a show of “colour”  | |  The first came from Monterey, San Francisco, San Jose and Sonoma: when clerks, doctors, laborers, lawyers, mechanics, rancheros left their jobs. Sailors deserted their ships. Soldiers deserted the Mexican War. As word spread more came from Hawai‘i, Mexico and Oregon.  | |  Gold seekers showing up near the sawmill of John August Sutter, where gold was first discovered, had no need for milled lumber, and his business went into decline. All the while, a new settlement grew across the Ameircan River to become Coloma, the first gold rush town. Nearby stands a monument, by the Native Sons of the Golden West, to mark the grave of James Wilson Marshall, the “discoverer of gold.”



Westward-Ho!

Panama 1849

One can cross Panama to get to California rather than sail around Cape Horn. Up Chagres river to the town of Culebra; then donkeys to Gulf of Panama, eleven miles away.

 | |  Maps were consulted and what became the California Trial began w/ existing routes. Emigrants showed up along the Missouri river and towns in Illinois or Iowa. Wagon trains hitched, they headed out, crossing landscapes of grasslands, prairies, steppes, valleys and rivers to Wyoming and Fort Laramie.

Fort Laramie 1834  | |  The only way to cross the Rockies was a corridor beyond Fort Laramie, level and broad. South Pass afforded several routes passage to California. At a fork in the road soon after, the Oregon Trail veers right while the Mormon Trail turns south toward Fort Bridger.

Fort Bridger 1842  | |  Overland travelers chose routes dependent on starting point and final destination. Other factors were the condition of their wagons, livestock, and the availability of water.
Gold Country 1850  | |  From California, one can get to Oregon on the Applegate Trail (1846), an alternative to the hazardous last leg of the Oregon Trail.

 | |  The Oregon Trail begins in Missouri and leaves either Fort Leavenworth, Independence or Saint Joseph for a two thousand mile trek to the Oregon Territory. Past the Great Plains, then the Rockies, heading west northwest to the Snake river, Fort Boise, Witman Mission, The Dales, Fort Vancouver, the Columbia river, and the coast.

The Santa Fe Trail starts off in Missouri, rolls through Kansas and a corner of Colorado. Crossing the Arkansas river before dropping to New Mexico, the trail loses its identity somewhat in Santa Fe, where it is braided to the Gila Trail, a local 16th-c. commerce and travel high road, bringing trade from inland to the coast.
 | |  The Mormon Trail, gathers in Illinois and wends by Iowa and Nebraska before joining established trails in Wyoming. Together they cross the Rockies, then the Mormon Trail continues south southwest to Utah Territory to end up in Los Angeles. Besides the overlanders there were also seafarers.

O Pioneers! 1849 Cape Horn 1849  | |  An eight-month sea route from New York to San Francisco would involve a harzardous rounding of Cape Horn.

Atlantic Ocean 1852

Gold Fever

A 49er carries pickaxe, shovel and pan. Can add a rocker and a hopper; some also conduct hydraulic experiments. A water wheel would be jim-dandy, to pick up individual quantities of gold-bearing gravel and sand.


Gold Mining 1949
49er 1848

 | |  Personal gear: pair of blankets, frying-pan, flour, salt pork, brandy (or other sanctifying spirit). Field gear must-haves: pickaxe, shovel and pan. Some procure a mule.

toolbox  | |  Gold miners w/ no financial backing learn to congregate along mountain roads and wait for supply wagons passing through, bringing food and tools and carrying out gold dust. Saturday nights were for salooning and carousing. Sunday is a holiday – laundry, tool repair, swapping stories, writing letters, napping. 49ers 1854
gold pan  | |  A twelve inch shallow sheet-iron pan to rinse soil w/ water and locate the gold. rocker  | |  A rocker is a rectangular wooden box mounted on two rockers and set at a downward angle.
hopper  | |  The hopper is a box sitting on top of the rocker, lined w/ a sheet of perforated iron. Beneath is an area called the “riddle-box.”
long tom  | |  The long tom is an improved rocker plus hopper, reaching to twenty feet in length. A long sheet of perforated iron lines the bottom and beneath that iw the riddle-box.
 | |  Women too had gold fever, coming from Mexico, Chile, Peru, England, France, New York and New Orleans. James Marshall tests his discovery’s quality in Mrs Wimmer’s kettle of boiling soap  | |  Depicted in history as adventuress, courtesan, harlot, pickpocket, prostitute and the demimonde, these women were also bookkeepers, cooks, laundresses, shop-keepers, maids, wives. When mountain roads improved sufficiently to make travel btw. towns feasible, they set forth as performers. Golden Girls 1849  | |  Mrs Clappe came west in 1851 w/ her husband. In her letters home she gives an account of the era, about geology and a visit to a rural doctor’s rude office of pine shingles and cotton cloth.

City of Gold
saloon chandelier  

Sydney Duck “English Jim” Stuart was hanged for robbery and murder on July 11 1851.


San Francisco 1851
Yerba Buena 1847 1848

 | |  Yerba Buena was a hamlet on the San Francisco peninsula w/ an excellent harbor. The Spaniards established a maritime trading post and built the Mission of San Francisco de Asis. Ships docking in its cove discharged sailors to a Spanish-style plaza known as Portsmouth Square.

Eureka! 1848
 | |  On arrival gold seekers rented lodgings in shanties and tent towns, and stayed long enough to buy tools and provisions before heading out.

Sydney Ducks 1848  | |  Brought over from Australia to perform labor, English convicts deserted en masse and instead formed a gang. Soon a frontier patch of lawlessness, Sydney Town, sprouted at the base of Telegraph Hill. The Sydney Ducks preyed on people and property, augmented by a gang of lady pickpockets, and willingly committed murder to survive.
Post Office  | |  The embers of Sydney Town rekindled and gave birth to the Barbary Coast, chock-a-block w/ bars, saloons, brothels, concert halls, dance halls; where “getting shanghaied” was first rehearsed. Survived the 1906 Earthquake and Fire, by 1917 the red-light district was no more.

San Francisco 1848 1849 19850 1851 Mint of San Francisco

Gold Mountain
Coloma Valley 1849



Sutter’s Mill on the South Fork of the American River.

Sutters Mill 1848 

 | |  Coloma, next to Sutter’s Mill, was the first gold mining town. A post office and jail were added in 1852 – both proved popular. Gold mining also took place north at Bidwell’s Bar, Cut Eye Foster’s Bar, Downieville, Dutch Flat, Goodyear’s Bar, Grass Valley, Helltown, Illinoistown, Iowa Hill, Kanaka Flat, Lousy Level, Marysville, Murderers Bar, Nevada City, Plumas City, Poker Flat, Rough and Ready, Washington, Whiskey Flat, Wisconsin Hill, and You Bet.

 | |  South at Angels Camp, Chinese Camp, Dogtown, Fair Play, Hornitos, Jackson, Mokelumme Hill, Mormon Bar, Rawhide, Rich Gulch, Shaw’s Flat, Sonora, Volcano.
 | |  Gold was found along tributaries to the San Joaquin and Sacramento rivers. At Auburn, Diamond Springs, Grizzly Flats, Missouri Flat, Placerville.

Miwok 1851  | |  Home to Native Americans incl. the Miwok, the Sierra Nevada was rudely affected by the Gold Rush. In 1849 an incident occurred along the Middle Fork of the American River when some 49ers died and some indigenes killed. An uneasy truce obtained when Native Americans were hired on as laborers and paid in tin, but by 1900 their population had declined to only ±16,000.

Hollywood 1935  | |  Before James Cagney was the Frisco Kid and Edward G. Robinson dramatized life in the Barbary Coast era, there was a 1913 feature, The Last Night of the Barbary Coast, now a lost film.
pair of jeans The 1849 state census counted 42,000 overlanders and 35,000 seafarers caught up by gold fever; together w/ 3,000 sailors who had deserted ships.
 | |  Coloma is now a ghost town inside Marshall Gold Discovery State Historic Park.

Chinatown 1852 Like all who seek a better tomorrow, the Chinese too came to the California Gold Rush, formed a fraternity in Coloma, squatted spent claims and worked as a team over the “tailings” left behind. In 1880 this gold-mining Chinatown was lost to fire.

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  PIXELS
  • Mexican Museum SF




Francisco Mattos   PORTFOLIO
My everyday tools can incl. BBEdit and thesaurus, Indesign and string, Photoshop and glue, Acrobat and exacto knife.


| Typography

Johnny Strike

Johnny Strike Voices, guitars (words) Hank Rank Drums, percussion Roger Strobel Bass Michael Campbell Processed sounds, bowed strings, soundscapes Joey D’Kaye Guitar, synthesizers, theremin




| Prepress

Francisco Mattos

CMYK quarter-page ad on newsprint, featuring a b-&-w photo.




| Pencil

A hand-drawn map of the staircases of Forest Hill. There are eleven: Alton, Alton Backstairs, Magellan, Merced, Montalvo, Oriole, San Carlos, Sola, and the Grand Staircase, which drops down to Dewey Avenue.


▶ Forest Hill San Francisco’s Forest Hill is a “small town” located near the center of San Francisco. Boundaries are roughly 7th Avenue and Laguna Honda Boulevard to the north and east, Taraval Street to the south, 14th Avenue to the west. It has its own light-rail station, bringing the K, L and M lines to its doorstep. Built in 1912 on land originally owned by Adolph Sutro, roadways took on a sinuous route to allow for horse-and-carriage to make it to the top, are wide and generous, albeit steep.




4L83R7 31N5731N Quote: 7H3 M345UR3 OF 1N73LL1­63NC3 15 7H3 481L17Y 70 CH4N63.



  RETURN TO REASON



A Haunted House

-by Virginia Woolf-

[1921]


Whatever hour you woke there was a door shut­ting. From room to room they went, hand in hand, lifting here, opening there, making sure — a ghostly couple.

“Here we left it,” she said. And he added, “Oh, but here too!” “It’s upstairs,” she murmured. “And in the garden,” he whis­pered. “Quietly,” they said, “or we shall wake them.”

But it wasn’t that you woke us. Oh, no. “They’re looking for it; they’re drawing the curtain,” one might say, and so read on a page or two. “Now they’ve found it,” one would be certain, stop­ping the pencil on the margin. And then, tired of reading, one might rise and see for oneself, the hosue all empty, the doors standing open, only the wood pigeons bubbling with content and the hum of the threshing machine sounding from the farm. “What did I come in here for? What did I want to find?” My hands were emp­ty. “Perhaps it’s upstairs then?” The apples were in the loft. And so down again, the garden still as ever, only the book had slipped into the grass.

But they had found it in the drawing-room. Not that one could ever see them. The window panes reflected apples, reflected roses; all the leaves were green in the glass. If they moved in the drawing-room, the apple only turned its yellow side. Yet, the moment after, if the door was opened, spread about the floor, hung upon the walls, pendant from the ceiling — what? My hands were empty. The shadow of a thrush crossed the carpet; from the deepest wells of silence the wood pigeon drew its bubble of sound. “Safe, safe, safe,” the pulse of the house beat softly. “The treasure buried; the room …” the pulse stopped short. Oh, was that the buried treasure?

A moment later the light had faded. Out in the garden then? But the trees spun darkness for a wandering beam of sun. So fine, so rare, cooly sunk beneath the surface the beam I sought always burnt behind the glass. Death was the glass; death was between us; coming to the woman first, hundreds of years ago, leaving the house, sealing all the windows; the rooms were darkened. He left it, left her, went North, went East, saw the stars turned in the Southern sky; sought the house, found it dropped beneath the Downs. “Safe, safe, safe,” the pulse of the house beat gladly. “The treasure yours.”

The wind roars up the avenue. Trees stoop and bend this way and that. Moonbeams splash and spill wildly in the rain. But the beam of the lamp falls straight from the window. The candle burns stiff and still. Wandering though the house, opening the windows, whispering not to wake us, the ghostly couple seek their joy.

“Here we slept,” she says. And he adds, “Kisses without number.” “Waking in the morning—” “Silver between the trees—” “Upstairs—” “In the garden—” “When summer came—” “In the winter snowtime—” The doors go shutting far in the distance, gently knocking like the pulse of a heart.

Nearer they come; cease at the doorway. The wind falls, the rain slides silver down the glass. Our eyes darken; we hear no steps beside us; we see no lady spread her ghostly cloak. His hands shield the lantern. “Look,” he breathes. “Sound asleep. Love upon their lips.”

Stooping, holding their silver lamp above us, long they look and deeply. Long they pause. The wind drives straightly; the flame stoops slightly. Wild beams of moonlight cross both floor and wall, and, meeting, stain the faces bent; the faces pondering; the faces that search the sleep­ers and seek their hidden joy.

“Safe, safe, safe,” the heart of the house beats proudly. “Long years—” he sighs. “Again you found me.” “Here,” she murmurs, “sleeping; in the garden reading; laugh­ing, rolling apples in the loft. Here we left our treasure—”  Stooping, their light lifts the lids upon my eyes. “Safe! safe! safe!” the pulse of the house beats widly. Waking, I cry “Oh, is this your buried treasure? The light in the heart.”




Susan B. Anthony


 “Finish the Fight!”


The United States of America v. Susan B. Anthony

In 1872, Susan B. Anthony (1820-1906), the daughter of Quaker abolitionists, walked into a polling station in Albany New York and voted. She was fined $100 on the charge of illegal voting, and she refused to pay. Four years earlier, together w/ Elizabeth Cady Stanton (1815-1902), she had founded the National Woman Suffrage Association. Her examples made possible the eventual adoption of the Nineteenth Amenement, fourteen years after her death.




FIRST DAY

THE PROSECUTION
D.A. Richard Crowley:

May it please the Court and Gentlemen of the Jury: ... The defendant, Miss Susan B. Anthony ... voted for a representative in the Congrees of the United States, to represent the 29th Congressional District of this State, and also for a representative at large for the State of New York to represent the State in the Congresss of the United States. At that time she was a woman. I suppose there will be no question about that ... whatever Miss Anthony’s intentions may have been - whether they were good or otherwise - she did not have a right to vote upon that question, and if she did vote without having a lawful right to vote, then there is no question but what she is guilty of violating a law of the United States ...

• • •

Conceded, that on the 5th day of November 1872, Miss Susan B. Anthony was a woman.


THE INSPECTORS’ TESTIMONY

Q: Did you see her vote? A: [Beverly W. Jones]: Yes, sir ...

Q: She was not challenged on the day she voted? A: No, sir.

Cross-examination by Defense Attorney, Judge Henry Selden.

Q: Prior to the election, was there a registry of voters in that district made? A: Yes, sir.

Q: Were you one of the officers engaged in making that registry? A: Yes, sir.

Q: When the registry was being made did Miss Anthony appear before the Board of Registry and claim to be registered as a voter? A: She did.

Q: Was there any objection made, or any doubt raised as to her right to vote? A: There was.

Q: On what ground? A: On the ground that the Constitution of the State of New York did not allow women to vote.

Q: What was the defect in her right to vote as a citizen? A: She was not a male citizen.

Q: That she was a woman? A: Yes, sir ...

Q: Did the Board consider the question of her right to registry, and decide that she was entitled to registry as a voter? A: Yes, sir.

Q: And she was registered accordingly? A: Yes, sir ...

Q: Won’t you state what Miss Anthony said, if she said anything, when she came there and offered her name for registration? A: She stated that she did not claim any rights under the Constitution of the State of New York; she claimed her right under the Constitution of the United States.

Q: Did she name any particular Amendment? A: Yes, sir; she cited the 14th amendment.

Q: Under that she claimed her right to vote? A: Yes, sir...




SECOND DAY

THE DEFENSE ATTORNEY
Judge Henry R. Selden:

The only alleged ground of illegality of the defendant's vote is that she is a woman.

“If the same act had been done by her brother under the same circumstances, the act would have been not only innocent, but honorable and laudable; but having been done by a woman it is said to be a crime. ... I believe this is the first instance in which a woman has been arraigned in a criminal court merely on account of her sex. ... Another objection is, that the right to hold office must attend the right to vote, and that women are not qualified to discharge the duties of responsible offices. I beg leave to answer this objection by asking one or more questions. How many of the male bipeds who do our voting are qualified to hold high offices? ... Another objection is that engaging in political controversies is not consistent w/ the feminine character. Upon that subject, women themselves are the best judges, and if political duties should be found inconsistent w/ female delicacy, we may rest assured that women will either effect a change in the character of political contests, or decline to engage in them. ...”


THE JUDGE

The Court: The question, gentlemen of the jury ... is wholly a question or questions of law, and I have decided as a question of law, in the first place, that under the 14th Amendment, which Miss Anthony claims protects her, she was not protected in a right to vote. And I have decided also that her belief and the advice which she took do not protect her in the act which she committed. If I am right in this, the result must be a verdict on your part of guilty, and I therefore direct that you find a verdict of guilty.
Mr. Selden: That is a direction no Court has power to make in a criminal case.
The Court: Take the verdict, Mr. Clerk. ...


Susan B. Anthony after casting her first vote, she was a 26 year-old school teacher in upstate New York, the year was 1848.



THE NEXT DAY

The Court: The prisoner will stand up. Has the prisoner anything to say why sentence shall not be pronounced?

MISS Anthony: Yes, your honor, I have many things to say; for in your ordered verdict of guilty, you have trampled underfoot every vital principle of our government. My natural rights, my civil rights, my political rights, are all alike ignored. Robbed of the fundamental privilege of citizenship, I am degraded from the status of a citizen to that of a subject; and not only myself individually, but all of my sex, are, by your honor’s verdict, doomed to political subjection under this so-called Republican government.
JUDGE Hunt: The Court can not listen to a rehearsal of arguments the prisoner's counsel has already consumed three hours in presenting.

MISS Anthony: May it please your honor, I am not arguing the question, but simply stating the reasons why sentence can not, in justice, be pronounced against me. Your denial of my citizen's right to vote is the denial of my right of consent as one of the governed, the denial of my right of representation as one of the taxed, the denial of my right to a trial by a jury of my peers as an offender against the law, therefore, the denial of my sacred rights to life, liberty, property, and-
JUDGE Hunt: The court can not allow the prisoner to go on.

MISS Anthony: But your honor will not deny me this one and only poor privilege of protest against this high-handed outrage upon my citizen's rights. May it please the Court to remember that since the day of my arrest last November, this is the first time that either myself or any person of my disfranchised class has been allowed a word of defense before judge or jury–
JUDGE Hunt: the prisoner must sit down; the Court can not allow it.

MISS Anthony: All my prosecutors, from the 8th Ward corner grocery politician, who entered the complaint, to the United States Marshal, Commissioner, District Attorney, District Judge, your honor on the bench, not one is my peer, but each and all are my political sovereigns; and had your honor submitted my case to the jury, as was clearly your duty, even that I should have had just cause of protest, for not one of those men was my peer; but, native or foreign, white or black, rich or poor, educated or ignorant, awake or asleep, sober or drunk, each and every man of them was my political superior; hence, in no sense, my peer. ...
JUDGE Hunt: The Court must insist - the prisoner has been tried according to the established forms of law.

MISS Anthony: Yes, your honor, but by forms of law all made by men, interpreted by men, administered by men, in favor of men, and against women; and hence, your honor’s ordered verdict of guilty, against a United States citizen for the exercise of “that citizen’ s right to vote,” simply because that citizen was a woman and not a man. But, yesterday, the same manmade forms of law declared it a crime punishable w/ $1,000 fine and six months’ imprisonment, for you, or me, or any of us, to give a cup of cold water, a crust of bread, or a night’s shelter to a panting fugitive as he is tracking his way to Canada. And every man or woman in whose veins coursed a drop of human sympathy violated that wicked law, reckless of consequences, and was justified in so doing. As then the slaves who got ther freedom must take it over, or under, or through the unjust forms of law, precisely so now must women, to get their right to a voice in this Government, take it; and I have taken mine, and mean to take it at every possible opportunity.
JUDGE Hunt: The Court orders the prisoner to sit down. It will not allow another word

MISS Anthony: When I was brought before your honor for trial, I hoped for a broad and liberal interpretation of the Constitution and its recent amendments, that should declare all United States citizens under its protecting aegis - that should declare equality of rights the national guarantee to all persons born or naturalized in the United States. But failing to get this justice - failing, even, to get a trial by a jury not of my peers - I ask not leniency at your hands - but rather the full rigors of the law.
JUDGE Hunt: The Court must insist - [Here the prisoner sat down.] The prisoner will stand up. [Here Miss Anthony arose again.] The sentence of the Court is that you pay a fine of $100 and the costs of the prosecution.

MISS Anthony: May it please your honor, I shall never pay a dollar of your unjust penalty. All the stock in trade I possess is a $10,000 debt, incurred by publishing my paper - The Revolution - four years ago, the sole object of which was to educate all women to do precisely as I have done, rebel against your man-made, unjust, unconstitutional forms of law, that tax, fine, imprison, and hang women, while they deny them the right of representation in the Government; and I shall work on with might and main to pay every dollar of that honest debt, but not a penny shall go to this unjust claim. And I shall earnestly and persistently continue to urge all women to the practical recognition of the old revolutionary maxim that “Resistance to tyranny is obedience to God.”
JUDGE Hunt: Madam, the Court will not order you committed until the fine is paid.



SUSAN B. ANTHONY NOTES:
[1.] From A Patroit’s Handbook (2003): songs, poems, stories, and speeches celebrating the land we love, selected and introduced by Caroline Kennedy. [2.] On November 26 2017, the trial of Miss Susan B. Anthony was reenacted at the James T. Foley U.S. Courthouse in Albany New York. Starting time was 6pm, and it was hosted by the Federal Court Bar Association of the U.S. District Court for the Northern District of New York.
Susan B. Anthony
     2017 San Francisco Women’s March






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-|  January 2021  |-






 WHAT SHE SAID

Mae West quote: His mother should have thrown him away and kept the stork.  




 STAIRWAY TO HEAVEN



a n a l y s t      On April 15, 1726, while taking tea in the garden w/ his friend, Issac Newton b.1642 pondered on an apple which had just fallen to the ground. William Stuckeley records how Newton mused:
      “Why should that apple al­ways descend per­pen­dic­u­lar­ly to the ground? Why should it not go side­ways, or up­wards? but con­stant­ly to the earth”s centre? As­sured­ly, the reason is, that the earth draws it. There must be a draw­ing power in ­, and the sum of the draw­ing power in the mat­ter of the earth must be in the earth’s centre, not in any side of the earth. There­fore does this apple fall per­pen­dic­u­lar­ly, or toward the center. If matter thus draws ­, it must be in pro­por­tion of its quan­tity. There­fore the apple draws the earth, as well as the earth draws the apple.”

a e r i a l i s t      The ancients, even if concerned of this “drawing power” that Newton was to articulate, mocked the gravity throne by continuing to send prayers up to heaven. Entreaties in temple script on paper were folded into a lantern, a candle is attached so that heat and smoke from the flame collects inside the lantern -- caus­ing its ascent to gods and god­dess­es.       Man­kind eventually followed that lantern, yet the ear­li­est airmen didn’t know to carry oxygen, and re­turned spouting the wildest tales of beings living in the upper air, and among them were four broth­ers, who were curious and would ap­proached w/ whistles and roars and yells, about many subjects, including that con­found­ed new contrivance, a wind tunnel.
      Sensing fear in the visitors’ eyes, their thun­der abated. Then Zephros drew even closer and whis­pered: “We are wind gods of the four cardinal points, heralds of seasons, sons to Typhöeus, fifth and final monster born to mother Earth. We too seek a rea­son for exis­tence, and wheth­er or not it be­comes us to be suited up in turbines, pumps, and such.”       Notos spread icicles when parting his lips: “Can these regulation systems really help w/ my rest­less­ness? and what’s up w/ welded insulation?” Euros brought up the sorest point: “Can gravity weigh me down and curb my mood.” Boreas’ grum­ble rumbled: “Magnetosphere con­strains our empire but why? and who are these rocket­men and their aerial ad­ven­tures in guidance and control?”

a v a t a r      Then the wind gods would in­var­i­a­bly take their guests on a grand tour. Earth’s at­mo­sphere is spherical and con­tains a precise mix­ture of gases such that oxygen be­comes its mir­ac­u­lous chem­i­cal product. The at­mo­sphere has the same shape as Gaia due to her gra­­vi­ta­tion­al grit, which she bestows to water and all things living. And just as the sea and moun­tains are deemed sentient so too should Aether be con­sid­ered a be­ing, having under­gone “bio­chemical modifications by living organisms” ever since his aboriginal form co­a­lesced into a paleo-atmo­sphere. Material enough for mother Earth to lassoo the invisible entity w/ a girdle tight enough to separate him into distinct layers and is the main cause of clouds.       Ancients can discern this sky god only when he digs into his bag of op­ti­cal tricks and throws mir­ages or scatters light. Aether is des­ign­at­ed the patron deity to life on Gaia, whose exis­tence depends on a narrow band of the bottom layer, be­gin­ning at sea level.

a n g e l      Im­ag­i­na­tive proto-aviators studied birds, how they populate the air and go where they will. Wings got built, men got strapped, jumps hap­pened -- all to naught or worse. Leo­nar­do da Vinci b.1452 had sketched out such dreams of levi­ta­tion but his idea, wings that can flap, never left the sketchbook.

   Bird wings are folding fans, able to expand and collapse. Each wing is a web of arm bones, having joints which, by evolutionary decree, have quills on the knuck­les; each quill grasps one feather.

a i r m a n      The wind gods liked to play w/ man­kind’s kites and were completely en­tranced by paper prayers heaven-bound using only heated air. They then found out that hydrogen, discovered c.1780, has levitational abilities also -- but only in unadulterated form; other­wise, being a gas, it would simply dissipate. Rare and difficult to distill, hydro­gen requires a cham­ber, white-hot iron, running water; and had to wait until a non-porous material to contain the new gas had not yet been de­vel­oped. In the interim, heated air would have to make do for heady inventors.       A ginor­mous pillow, w/ a small open­ing and tied to a large basket, was deemed capa­cious enough that, by tak­ing in a healthy gulp of hot air, the entire con­trap­tion will rise into the air (1783). Then, as the trapped air cools, the hot-air balloon will descend. The first volun­teers chosen to carry out this maid­en flight were a french sheep, duck and rooster.

a c r o b a t      Kites were originally devised to bring the way wind into better play. Kites (and smoke) could and were used for military reasons: as a signal, a measurment of dis­tance, to “test the wind”. Dog-earred generals carried mint editions of The Myth of Icarus into battle and tasked military engineers to make accessories to kites so that, adding a pas­sen­ger, the gimmick can be carried upwards.       Starting in the late 1850s, the idea of a man in the air, tethered to a kite, got serious attention. Could it be that sending up an en­tire lab was so 1847 al­ready? That was when the first use of a kite to forecast the weather occurred at Kew Ob­ser­va­to­ry, when a “very stable” one was able to support “meteorological instruments at height”. Benjamin Franklin b.1706 had got there first w/ a simpler laboratory: kite, key, lightning storm.
      Then the golden age of kiting came to an end around 1910, when the military began to pay visits to the sky, giving notice that the empire of the winds was coming to an end.


a l c h e m i s t      Gunpowder is the earliest known chemical explosive. Adding heat to a mixture of carbon, sulfur and saltpeter (an ef­flor­es­cence mineral found on stones) will cause a flash accompanied by fire that burns off. China’s alchemists had learned how to extract saltpeter, during a medicinal quest to find the elixir of life -- what they got instead “smoke and flames”.
      Although the ear­li­est pyrotechnics in the sky were to send signals they were also used, in pro­fu­sion, on any occasion for pomp that needed a pop.       Paper tubes filled w/ confetti and a spoon of gun­powder were then sealed w/ a fuse stick­ing out. The tube is secured to a long stick that acts as a tail, is aimed to­wards the sky -- fire is in­tro­duced to the fuse gets ig­nit­ed. The deto­nation pro­duces a pro­pul­sive force, the fire­work ascends and the con­tents spill out.
      In­ge­nui­ty on how the fire­smith fills the tube is what will ha­ppen next.       Fire­works are pro­pelled mis­siles guid­ed dur­ing a brief ini­tial phase of pow­ered flight. Each fire­work has a sub­sequent tra­jec­tory that obeys the laws of grav­ity, codified as clas­sic­al mechanics.

a r c h e t y p e       When the Second World War ended in 1947, pilots from many nations re­turned to the civilian ranks.       Some, how­ever, to­geth­er w/ their ground me­chan­ics and radio op­er­a­tors, were eager to go further into the sky, and by the late 1950s heaven was beginning to get crowded.
      Gov­ern­ments were wont to fund space ex­plo­ra­tions, but only after the re­main­der of Earth not yet bound by pass­ports -- the north and south poles -- were divvied up. Long­i­tude and latitude deter­mi­na­tions then led to pre­ci­sion map­ping of the world, and in the co-mingling of new disciplines, rock­et science took off to map all the others.


Nile from outer space

South African National Space Agency

Formed in 2010 to manage sat­el­lites that monitor the con­ti­nent for flooding and fires, pro­vide an earth watch record, play host to the only regional space weather warn­ing center for Africa, and the inheritor to a re­cord­ing sta­tion, the Her­ma­nus Magnetic Ob­ser­va­to­ry, set up to be a geo­mag­net­ic research center and part of a net­work taking meas­ure­ments of the global mag­net­ic field.        Now the station is a part of the site that ad­min­is­ters South Afri­ca’s space pro­gram.



European Space Agency

A com­pact for western Europe after inter­gov­ern­men­tal dis­cus­sions for a cohesive ap­proach to space. Designed for uncrewed mis­sions in 1975, ESA soon enough changed its approach to space science. Today, ESA does so much more than ex­plor­a­tion. There is de­vel­op­ment going on for a space­plane and a project to turn earth-watch data into apps. A sur­vey of one per­cent of the known universe (2019), which will result in a map. What hap­pens when regular and dark mat­ter meet, and how both act, together and sep­ar­ate­ly, when mingled w/ dark energy (2019). A study the Sun up close. Search for life on Mars. Planned mis­sion to Mercury (2025). Several exo-planetary hunt­ing missions. Orig­ins of phos­phor­us. Then a deep dive into an asteroid defense shield. The agency’s major space­port is in French Guiana, where it con­ducts human space­flight, launches Earth observation sat­el­lites, and sends space­probes to explore. Found­ed by ten nations, the European Space Agency now has 22 mem­bers, and a wait­ing list of ± eleven applicants.


国 家 航 天 局

China launched into outer space in 1970 w/ a song. The satellite con­tained a perpetual loop of Dong Fang Hong, a sung eulogy to Mao Zedong, bringing the rev­ol­u­tion to the subhurbs of the solar system.        Formed in 1993 from input by four bodies: sys­tems en­gin­eer­ing, space sci­ence, gen­er­al plan­ning, for­eign af­fairs. China’s space pro­gram was made possible be­cause of Hsue-Shen Tsien b.1911, ex­pelled from JPL for political un­cer­tain­ties. Aero­space scientists in Chengdu have shown interest in launching an artificial moon as a fixed sat­el­lite no more than 50 miles wide and 22,000 mi (35,400 km) away. When the re­port­er asked, the de­vel­op­ers of this secondary source of il­lu­mi­na­tion at night promised a “dusk-like glow” that won’t dis­turb nocturnal animal rites. Today, the CHINA NATION­AL SPACE AGENCY has landed on the moon twice -- the first since the Apollo missions. Recently named an as­ter­oid it discovered for Wu Wei­ren (2020), a pioneer of deep space ex­plor­a­tion. Yes­ter­day, China thanked its stars that an out-of-control space­craft, spinning and tumbling going on two years, fi­nal­ly crashed into the south Pacific (2018).
Moon

Mercury
Ελληνικός Διαστημικός Οργανισμός

Experiencing a malleable mo­ment w/ yearnings for a return to Olympus, Greece put away the telescope and announced the cre­a­tion of a       HEL­LEN­IC SPACE CENTER in 2019, in­vit­ing divine mes­seng­ers Her­mes and Iris to issue a di­rec­tive that greek culture plans to again be a par­tic­i­pant in “space events”.




Bộ Khoa học và Công nghệ

Vietnam’s interest in space, if any, falls under the pur­view of the ministry of science and tech­nol­o­gy, which has thrown a bu­col­ic blanket over its astro-plans.       Back in 1980, the coun­try was proud to have had a viet­naut join a cosmo­naut to pilot Soyuz 37 onto the Sal­yut-6 space station, the first of three such pair­ing of viet- and cosmo- nauts, under a pro­gram from the soviet union for social­ist coun­tries allied to the war­saw pact. Phạm Tuân, born in Quoc Tuan village (1947), flew a jet fight­er in the people’s air force (1965) and died age 32 in a Mig-21 crash.

International Space Station

The era of comfort in space took place silently when the first com­po­nent to a future space sta­tion com­plex was launched (1988), carrying container con­nec­tions for con­tin­gen­cy transfer of water, con­tain­er bags, wipes, “filters”. The space module also carried six nickel-cad­ium bat­ter­ies, two solar arrays, three docking ports. A pres­sur­ized valve unit w/ air ducts, funnel con­tain­ment fil­ters and dust col­lect­ors. Smoke de­tec­tor, gas anal­yz­er, gas masks, port­a­ble fans. The cabin has a pole, hand­rails, hooks, in­stru­ment con­tain­ers. Zarya was the first component to ISS, de­signed to be au­ton­o­mous for eight months. More modules then ar­rived to inter­lock and create an ex­po­nen­tial habitat. Fifteen na­tions and five space age­ncies co­or­di­nate this mis­sion -- Can­a­da, Japan, Rus­sia, United States, the Euro­pean Space Agen­cy -- sign­ing agree­ments cov­er­ing legal, fi­nan­cial and po­lit­i­cal im­pli­ca­tions in how the station is util­ized; day to day; traffic; crew time. Ser­viced by a team of three robots capable of in­de­pen­dent or con­joined ac­tiv­i­ties. Legacy loos are being re­placed w/ new com­fort stations (2020); a waste man­age­ment sys­tem common for all vehi­cle plat­forms is on the draw­ing table.
ISS flies in front of the Sun.


Indian Space Research Organisation

A moon mission, led by female scientists in 2017, detected “mag­mat­ic water” -- first evidence of h-two-oh. Chandrayaan-1 then had a mishap and crashed, adding a new crater. A second moon mis­sion, having re­leased a land­er which was within a mile from touch­down, sud­den­ly be­came dis­abled from a cyber­attack and ceased func­tion­ing (2019). Re­port­ing to the depart­ment of space, the space pro­gram also develops and deliv­ers sat­el­lite apps for smart phones, includ­ing in car­tog­ra­phy and dedi­cated distance edu­ca­tion.       India’s space program (1969) had humble beginnings, when iono­sphere sound­ings were being con­duct­ed in Cal­cut­ta (1920s). Today’s sky watch­ers prefer to do so in a theater, watching the latest bolly-fi release.


Zambian Space Programme

Edward Nkoloso was an african grade school teacher tink­er­ing with a catapult capable of send­ing a spaceship car­ry­ing ten or so to Mars.       When Zambia gained in­de­pen­dence in 1964, he was then ap­point­ed liai­son w/ re­gion­al free­dom fight­ers; all the while ­ his space pro­gram going. There is foot­age of his training camp for afro­nauts from 1960. Born a prince of the Bemba tribe, Ed­ward Ma­ku­ka Nko­loso had a mis­sion­ary edu­ca­tion in latin, french and the­ol­o­gy; he died in 1989, age 70.
Canadian Space Agency

Continuing to maintain its air fleet after World War Two, Canada paid attention to the upper atmosphere and in 1962 launched a satellite.       Formed in 1990, the Canadian Space Agency now shares its space knowledge for the “ben­e­fit of can­ad­i­ans and humanity”, and has chal­lenged its youth to submit ideas for “mak­ing space easier and more fun”, w/ the promise to prototype the best entry. There is a trove of footage from a canadian astro­naut training camp.

Royal Canadian Air Force WW-2

Hubble Space Telescope 1990

NASA

As the outcome to World War II turned in their favor, the United States set in motion “oper­a­tion paperclip” to re­trieve nazi rocket tech­nol­o­gy, and came back w/ 100 V-2 rockets, production site draw­ings, and Wernher von Braun b.1912, amenable to con­tin­ue where he had left off. Home­grown rocket science was al­ready hap­pen­ing at the Jet Pro­pul­sion Lab­or­a­to­ry, so Amer­i­ca made plans for a future in space and in 1958 created the NATION­AL AERO­NAU­TICS AND SPACE AD­MIN­IS­TRA­TION.       Seven years later there was an orbiting lab. Then a duo-man program left foot­prints on the Moon (1969). The first un­teth­er­ed spacewalk was in 1984, when astronaut Bruce McCand­less performed free flying 320 feet away from his craft: “... overused lines ‘slipped the sur­ly bonds of Earth’, but when I was free from the shut­tle, they felt ac­cur­ate”. From its in­cep­tion, NASA hired tal­ent, and some of these stor­ies are dramatized in 2017’s Hidden Figures, about three african american female mathe­ma­ti­cians.
Soon attention will be paid to samples brought back from apol­lo asteroid Ben­nu by the Orig­ins Spec­tral In­ter­pre­ta­tion Re­source Iden­ti­fi­ca­tion Secur­ity Rego­lith Explor­er (2020). These days NASA has plans for an inter­stel­lar mission to the Alpha Cen­tau­ri system (2017). Elated about the scholarship named for Dr Kath­er­ine Coleman Goble John­son (2018). Perturbed that “poor rec­ord keeping” con­trib­ut­ed to the loss of an Apollo 11 lunar col­lec­tion bag that con­tained lunar dust par­ti­cles (2018). Released a 60-year an­ni­ver­sary video (2018). Es­tab­lished as a civilian space program, Amer­i­ca’s space pro­gram was militarized sixty years later.

Cape Canaveral 1965 Lunar Mobile 1972
Technicians at Goodyear Aircraft Corp work on an inflatable space habitat concept for NASA
Mary Jackson. Judy Sullivan. Betty Skelton. Eleanor Burbidge. Dr Mae C Jemison. Laurel van der Wal. Grace Hopper. Dorothy Vaughan. Judith Love Cohen. Katherine Johnson.

Venus

UK Space Agency

Britain caught the space flu ear­li­er than most, and by 1933 al­ready had an inter­planet­ary society. Post World War Two, re­covered ger­man rocket sci­ence under­went forensics and soon enough test launches were conducted, in 1957 reach­ing an altitude of 125 mi (200 km). Eventually a national space agency was set up in 2010, ab­sorb­ing an ear­lier iteration from 1985.       UKSA offers an apprenticeship pro­gram, is not­ed for sus­tain­a­ble de­vel­op­ment, and now fo­cused on space debris -- an emerg­ing real­ity. A folder on UFOs, “com­prising en­tire­ly of cor­re­spon­dence w/ mem­bers of the public” going back 50 years, is to be re­leased through the royal air force website.



New Zealand Space Agency

   When it became ap­par­ent their location was be­com­ing an ideal spot for space launches, New Zea­land donned min­is­ter­ial gloves in 2016 to fetch back a suitable space scarf to add to the coun­try’s wardrobe.

宇 宙 航 空 研 究 開 発 機 構

On a hunch, three research labs decided to merge, bringing to­geth­er experience in radio as­tron­omy, the magnetosphere, and x-ray (1955) (1964) (1969). The team went on to found the JAPAN AERO­SPACE EX­PLOR­A­TORY AGENCY in 2003. Where­as it used to send sat­el­lites to watch the earth and report on the trop­i­cal rainfall sea­sons and at­mo­spher­ic dy­nam­ics (1997), JAXA now con­ducts innovative research -- based on their encounter w/ Ryugu in 2019. As Haya­busa-1 was approaching the half-mile wide asteroid the space­craft took a pot­shot (creating a new crater) be­fore its lander board­ed this fly­ing rock. Then it flung samples back to Earth. Pro­ject­ed to hit the ocean off Australia, the envelope, con­tain­ing sam­ples be­twen 10 million and 20 million years old, was re­trieved in the outback (2020).        Japan’s dream of space came from Hideo Ito­ka­wa, who test-launched a small missile in 1955. Grad­u­ate of the imperial uni­ver­sity w/ a major in aero­nautics (1935), Ito­ka­wa was a vis­ion­ary and is grand­pa to Japan’s space program.
Ryugu 2019

Asteroid belt objects Vesta Eros Ida Juno Mathilde Dactyl Ceres


Centre National d'Études Spatiales

When France went over the rub­ble of World War 2, any bal­lis­tic missile, ex­ploded or not, were gingerly handled. Vic­tor­ious though shell-shocked, the nation had once set records for hot-air balloon feats when the 18th-cen­tury was still young, now she sat about to tinker w/ these wea­pons in order to glean aero­dynam­ic achieve­ments from the german school of “rock­et pro­pul­sion and guid­ance”.         Enough inter­est that the NATION­AL CEN­TRE FOR SPACE RE­SEARCH was created in 1961, and gave space medicine a face when astronaut Jean-Loup Chrétien was mon­i­tored med­i­cal­ly in 1982. Then military wings sprouted in 2019, when NCSR joined the air force, and is planning to re­lease a trove of UFO files go­ing back to 1954. With a heady mis­sion to trans­pose civ­il­i­za­tion to space, France’s space pro­gram is the largest budg­et­ary contributor to the European Space Agency.

Agentur für Luft-und Raumfahrt

In 1961, a manuscript by Con­rad Haas b.1509 ap­peared, waxing poetic of his ex­per­i­ments in cross­ing wea­pon­ry w/ fireworks, what China knew as a “fire lance” he called his “flying jave­lin”. Lab work in ion­o­spher­ic phys­ics, wave pro­pa­ga­tion (U of Graz) and plas­ma physics (U of Inns­bruck) would have in­trigued Haas, an austrian mil­i­tary en­gin­eer from Tran­syl­va­nia.       Seeking a foun­da­tion­al start­ing point, the acad­e­my of sci­ences con­vened, in 1972, the AUS­TRI­AN SPACE AGENCY.



Державне космічне агентство України

By the time H.F. Proskura b.1876 began to specialize in helicopters (1914), a Ukraine space program was already in situ. He was a hy­draul­ic en­gin­eer who built sys­tems for regulating hydro­dynam­ism, and together w/ like-minds launched a missile to the strat­o­sphere in 1937. This feat prompt­ed the re­tooling of an auto­mobile plant into manufac­tur­ing rockets (c.1960s).       Today’s NA­TION­AL SPACE AGEN­CY OF UKRAINE (1992) is child to the soviet space program.
Uranus + moons Ariel Titania Oberon Miranda Umbriel

Neptune + moons Nereid Galatea Proteus Triton


Agenzia Spaziale Italiana

19th-century Italy looked at the sky w/ scientific eyes, keeping up a study begun 300 years or more ago. Luigi Gussali b.1885 would go on to propose solar power as a propellant in 1946. Nuclear pow­er would work, Gioulio Go­stan­zi b.1875 had said earlier, in 1914 -- pos­tu­lat­ing on the plights of weight­less­ness, heat death as well as poisonous rays from the Sun.       Today their re­search are a part of the ITAL­IAN SPACE AGENCY, which opened next door to the Vat­i­can in 1988, now studies “habit­able space in­fra­struc­ture” and all things gamma-ray related.




Magyar Űrkutatási Iroda

The ministry of national de­vel­op­ment oversees a civil­ian space pro­gram , w/ aero­space re­search­ers and advisory board (1992).        Then money for the nation’s science sector dried up and has jeo­par­dized the HUN­GAR­IAN SPACE OFFICE.



Роскосмос

The Russian space program has claim to many fathers, some al­ready delving into reactive pro­pul­sion tests when the 20th-cen­tu­ry was yet a babe. Kon­stan­tin Tsiol­kov­sky b.1857 the­or­iz­ed about aeronautics and rocketry in 1929. Fried­rich Zander b.1887 finetuned liquid-fuel research for practical ap­pli­ca­tions. Then a space acad­e­my blos­somed before being folded in­to a clas­si­fied mil­i­tary pro­gram in 1992 -- and ROSCOS­MOS its public face.       Left behind are icon­ic mo­ments from the soviet space program. First wo­man in space Valen­tina Teresh­kova (1963); the cosmo­naut who pre­ced­ed her Yuri Gagarin (1961). Stand­ing on their shoul­ders Alexei Leonov, who made the first space­walk (last­ing 12 min­utes and nine seconds): “I stepped into that void and I didn‘t fall in. I was mes­mer­ised by the stars. They were every­where – up above, down below, to the left, to the right” (1965). The best looking satellite is still the first, Sputnik-1 (1957), a globe w/ four an­ten­nae.
Sputnik-1 1957

Rocket City 1956



Agenţia Spaţialǎ Românǎ

Early 20th-century Romania had enough enthusiasts build­ing and test­ing aero­planes that the na­tion developed five air­craft com­pa­nies into a national in­dus­try.       Com­bin­ing in 1990 to be­come the ROMAN­IAN SPACE AGEN­CY, and tasked w/ space research activ­i­ties and “secur­ity ap­pli­ca­tions”. Member of ESA since 2012.




Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.

By 1907 Germany had al­ready set up an ex­per­i­men­tal aero­dy­nam­ic station (1907). Soon eough at­tract­ing in­ter­est from an in­sti­tute, as­so­ci­a­tion, con­sor­tium and a society.         In­ter­est in space never waned, and in 1989 this pro­duc­tive R&D all came to­gether to form the GER­MAN AERO­SPACE CEN­TER, w/ a cur­rent em­pha­sis on hy­dro­gen as an energy carrier, and research into traffic con­ges­tions.



 WHAT HE SAID

Spielberg's Lincoln has a dream: It's nighttime. Ship's moved by some terrible power at a terrible speed. And though it's imperceptible in the darkness I have an intuition that we're headed towards a shore. No one else seems to be about the vessel. I'm very keenly aware of my aloneness. I could be bounded in a nutshell and count myself a king of infinite space, were it not that I have bad dreams.  



 METAL MEN Wild Wild West

Illustrated w/ collages, drawings, maps, paintings, photographs, prints and quotes

| |  Out west, when 1848 was only twenty-four days old, mechanic James Marshall was making a routine inspection on the grounds of a sawmill he ran for his employer. That was when the New Jersey native noticed some odd-looking ore in a water channel of the South Fork of the American River. It was “... bright, yet malleable. I then tried it between two rocks, and found that it could be beaten into a different shape, but not broken.”  | |  Nine days after Marshall emerged from the waters w/ his find, the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed, transferring a large tract of Mexico to the United States.  | |  These concurrent events together precipitated the California Gold Rush of 1849, when folks came from all over, bringing dreams while praying to the god and goddess of wealth for a show of “colour”  | |  The first came from Monterey, San Francisco, San Jose and Sonoma: when clerks, doctors, laborers, lawyers, mechanics, rancheros left their jobs. Sailors deserted their ships. Soldiers deserted the Mexican War. As word spread more came from Hawai‘i, Mexico and Oregon.  | |  Gold seekers showing up near the sawmill of John August Sutter, where gold was first discovered, had no need for milled lumber, and his business went into decline. All the while, a new settlement grew across the Ameircan River to become Coloma, the first gold rush town. Nearby stands a monument, by the Native Sons of the Golden West, to mark the grave of James Wilson Marshall, the “discoverer of gold.”



Westward-Ho!

Panama 1849

One can cross Panama to get to California rather than sail around Cape Horn. Up Chagres river to the town of Culebra; then donkeys to Gulf of Panama, eleven miles away.

 | |  Maps were consulted and what became the California Trial began w/ existing routes. Emigrants showed up along the Missouri river and towns in Illinois or Iowa. Wagon trains hitched, they headed out, crossing landscapes of grasslands, prairies, steppes, valleys and rivers to Wyoming and Fort Laramie.

Fort Laramie 1834  | |  The only way to cross the Rockies was a corridor beyond Fort Laramie, level and broad. South Pass afforded several routes passage to California. At a fork in the road soon after, the Oregon Trail veers right while the Mormon Trail turns south toward Fort Bridger.

Fort Bridger 1842  | |  Overland travelers chose routes dependent on starting point and final destination. Other factors were the condition of their wagons, livestock, and the availability of water.
Gold Country 1850  | |  From California, one can get to Oregon on the Applegate Trail (1846), an alternative to the hazardous last leg of the Oregon Trail.

 | |  The Oregon Trail begins in Missouri and leaves either Fort Leavenworth, Independence or Saint Joseph for a two thousand mile trek to the Oregon Territory. Past the Great Plains, then the Rockies, heading west northwest to the Snake river, Fort Boise, Witman Mission, The Dales, Fort Vancouver, the Columbia river, and the coast.

The Santa Fe Trail starts off in Missouri, rolls through Kansas and a corner of Colorado. Crossing the Arkansas river before dropping to New Mexico, the trail loses its identity somewhat in Santa Fe, where it is braided to the Gila Trail, a local 16th-c. commerce and travel high road, bringing trade from inland to the coast.
 | |  The Mormon Trail, gathers in Illinois and wends by Iowa and Nebraska before joining established trails in Wyoming. Together they cross the Rockies, then the Mormon Trail continues south southwest to Utah Territory to end up in Los Angeles. Besides the overlanders there were also seafarers.

O Pioneers! 1849 Cape Horn 1849  | |  An eight-month sea route from New York to San Francisco would involve a harzardous rounding of Cape Horn.

Atlantic Ocean 1852

Gold Fever

A 49er carries pickaxe, shovel and pan. Can add a rocker and a hopper; some also conduct hydraulic experiments. A water wheel would be jim-dandy, to pick up individual quantities of gold-bearing gravel and sand.


Gold Mining 1949
49er 1848

 | |  Personal gear: pair of blankets, frying-pan, flour, salt pork, brandy (or other sanctifying spirit). Field gear must-haves: pickaxe, shovel and pan. Some procure a mule.

toolbox  | |  Gold miners w/ no financial backing learn to congregate along mountain roads and wait for supply wagons passing through, bringing food and tools and carrying out gold dust. Saturday nights were for salooning and carousing. Sunday is a holiday – laundry, tool repair, swapping stories, writing letters, napping. 49ers 1854
gold pan  | |  A twelve inch shallow sheet-iron pan to rinse soil w/ water and locate the gold. rocker  | |  A rocker is a rectangular wooden box mounted on two rockers and set at a downward angle.
hopper  | |  The hopper is a box sitting on top of the rocker, lined w/ a sheet of perforated iron. Beneath is an area called the “riddle-box.”
long tom  | |  The long tom is an improved rocker plus hopper, reaching to twenty feet in length. A long sheet of perforated iron lines the bottom and beneath that iw the riddle-box.
 | |  Women too had gold fever, coming from Mexico, Chile, Peru, England, France, New York and New Orleans. James Marshall tests his discovery’s quality in Mrs Wimmer’s kettle of boiling soap  | |  Depicted in history as adventuress, courtesan, harlot, pickpocket, prostitute and the demimonde, these women were also bookkeepers, cooks, laundresses, shop-keepers, maids, wives. When mountain roads improved sufficiently to make travel btw. towns feasible, they set forth as performers. Golden Girls 1849  | |  Mrs Clappe came west in 1851 w/ her husband. In her letters home she gives an account of the era, about geology and a visitto a rural doctor’s rude office of pine shingles and cotton cloth.

City of Gold
saloon chandelier  

Sydney Duck “English Jim” Stuart was hanged for robbery and murder on July 11 1851.


San Francisco 1851
Yerba Buena 1847 1848

 | |  Yerba Buena was a hamlet on the San Francisco peninsula w/ an excellent harbor. The Spaniards established a maritime trading post and built the Mission of San Francisco de Asis. Ships docking in its cove discharged sailors to a Spanish-style plaza known as Portsmouth Square.

Eureka! 1848
 | |  On arrival gold seekers rented lodgings in shanties and tent towns, and stayed long enough to buy tools and provisions before heading out.

Sydney Ducks 1848  | |  Brought over from Australia to perform labor, English convicts deserted en masse and instead formed a gang. Soon a frontier patch of lawlessness, Sydney Town, sprouted at the base of Telegraph Hill. The Sydney Ducks preyed on people and property, augmented by a gang of lady pickpockets, and willingly committed murder to survive.
Post Office  | |  The embers of Sydney Town rekindled and gave birth to the Barbary Coast, chock-a-block w/ bars, saloons, brothels, concert halls, dance halls; where “getting shanghaied” was first rehearsed. Survived the 1906 Earthquake and Fire, by 1917 the red-light district was no more.

San Francisco 1848 1849 19850 1851 Mint of San Francisco

Gold Mountain
Coloma Valley 1849



Sutter’s Mill on the South Fork of the American River.

Sutters Mill 1848 

 | |  Coloma, next to Sutter’s Mill, was the first gold mining town. A post office and jail were added in 1852 – both proved popular. Gold mining also took place north at Bidwell’s Bar, Cut Eye Foster’s Bar, Downieville, Dutch Flat, Goodyear’s Bar, Grass Valley, Helltown, Illinoistown, Iowa Hill, Kanaka Flat, Lousy Level, Marysville, Murderers Bar, Nevada City, Plumas City, Poker Flat, Rough and Ready, Washington, Whiskey Flat, Wisconsin Hill, and You Bet.  | |  South at Angels Camp, Chinese Camp, Dogtown, Fair Play, Hornitos, Jackson, Mokelumme Hill, Mormon Bar, Rawhide, Rich Gulch, Shaw’s Flat, Sonora, Volcano.

 | |  Gold was found along tributaries to the San Joaquin and Sacramento rivers. At Auburn, Diamond Springs, Grizzly Flats, Missouri Flat, Placerville.

Miwok 1851  | |  Home to Native Americans incl. the Miwok, the Sierra Nevada was rudely affected by the Gold Rush. In 1849 an incident occurred along the Middle Fork of the American River when some 49ers died and some indigenes killed. An uneasy truce obtained when Native Americans were hired on as laborers and paid in tin, but by 1900 their population had declined to only ±16,000.

Hollywood 1935  | |  Before James Cagney was the Frisco Kid and Edward G. Robinson dramatized life in the Barbary Coast era, there was a 1913 feature, The Last Night of the Barbary Coast, now a lost film.
pair of jeans The 1849 state census counted 42,000 overlanders and 35,000 seafarers caught up by gold fever; together w/ 3,000 sailors who had deserted ships.
 | |  Coloma is now a ghost town inside Marshall Gold Discovery State Historic Park.

Chinatown 1852 Like all who seek a better tomorrow, the Chinese too came to the California Gold Rush, formed a fraternity in Coloma, squatted spent claims and worked as a team over the “tailings” left behind. In 1880 this gold-mining Chinatown was lost to fire.

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